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Surgical Specialties

Surgery is one of the most time-consuming, complex and critical areas of medicine. This specialty involves surgical interventions of varying complexity. How is this area of ​​activity structured?

Description and characteristics of the profession

The profession of a surgeon is very respected and significant in the modern world. It is distinguished by a high responsibility for the further life of a person. The development of science made it possible to carry out the most complex interventions that require knowledge and the ability to handle high-precision technology. A surgeon can work in the following medical institutions:

  • polyclinic;
  • hospital;
  • sanatorium;
  • dispensary;
  • emergency room;
  • private office or clinic;
  • medical school;
  • university;
  • scientific organization;
  • military unit;
  • sports organizations.

At his/her workplace, the specialist conducts radical, palliative and diagnostic operations. There are also emergency (when the patient’s condition is critical and requires immediate intervention) and planned surgeries (carried out after preliminary preparation). Surgeons are in close contact with anesthetists, assistants (junior colleagues) and monitor the work of nursing staff.


The surgeon can specialize in one of the following areas:

  • Neurosurgery (treatment of all diseases of the brain and spinal cord);
  • Plastic surgery. Elimination of aesthetic problems;
  • Cardiac surgery. Cardiac muscle surgery for congenital and acquired defects; restoration of coronary circulation by stenting, bypass surgery; invasive types of diagnosis;
  • Vascular surgery. The surgeon’s job is to operate on veins and arteries;
  • Abdominal surgery. The specialist usually encounters such pathologies as appendicitis, peritonitis, perforated ulcer, bleeding of internal organs, neoplasms, intestinal necrosis, stones from the bile ducts;
  • Maxillofacial surgery. The specialist helps with anomalies in the development of the bones of the skull and jaw, eliminates the effects of injuries, removes purulent foci;
  • Thoracic surgery. The surgeon solves lung problems (tumors, calcification, a foreign body of the respiratory tract, and also excludes purulent and necrotic areas);
  • Oncology. The surgeon is engaged in the removal of tumors of any etiology.


Regardless of the place of work and specialization, the duties of the surgeon include:

  • receiving and examining patients;
  • conducting a conversation about the need for radical treatment and the possible risks associated with its implementation;
  • collection of medical history and preliminary diagnosis;
  • referral (if necessary) to research;
  • establishing a final diagnosis and determining the timing of the operation;
  • recommendations and control over the preparation;
  • conducting an intervention;
  • supervision of the patient until his/her full rehabilitation;
  • the implementation of the prevention of complications;
  • statement and recommendations;
  • maintaining medical records.

Is surgery the right profession for you?

Random people do not become surgeons. To master this specialty, you should have a good memory and constant replenishment of knowledge. You should always be aware of all the techniques developed by previous generations, and try to improve them or invent your own.

In addition, it is necessary:

  • ​​to be self-confident and make quick decisions since the life of the patient depends on this;
  • to prevent unwanted scenarios during the operation; endure stresses and failures steadily, since it is not always possible to save a person’s life;
  • to have endurance, patience and health since you have to stand for many hours on your feet and be fully focused;
  • to be able to communicate with people, find a common language with colleagues and patients.

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